Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life.
These data suggest that fetal exposure to increased maternal BMI is associated with elevated levels of behavior problems as early as age 2, and that this may be linked to the intrauterine environment.
Uncertainty remains over whether or not high intakes of retinol or vitamin A consumed through food or supplements may increase fracture risk. This intervention study found no increase in fracture risk among 2,322 adults who took a controlled, high-dose retinol supplement (25,000 IU retinyl palmitate/day) for as long as 16 years. There was some evidence that beta-carotene supplementation decreased fracture risk in men.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM).
Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM.
We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia.
Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs); 1separately by age and sex.
The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.